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- >Notes to the consolidated financial statements
- >Note 3
|New or revised IFRS standards and interpretations 2015 and their adoption by the Group
|Relevance for Geberit
|No new or revised IFRS standards have been put into effect this year.
|The Group has applied the amendments of the annual improvements to IFRS of the 2010 - 2012 and 2011 - 2013 cycles for 2015. They did not have any significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.
|New or revised IFRS standards and interpretations as from 2016 and their adoption by the Group
|Relevance for Geberit
|IFRS 9 – Financial Instruments
|The complete version of IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments' includes requirements on the classification and measurement of financial assets and liabilities; it defines three classification categories for debt instruments: amortized cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (‘FVOCI’) and fair value through profit or loss (‘FVPL’). Classification for investments in debt instruments is driven by the entity's business model for managing financial assets and their contractual cash flows. Investments in equity instruments are always measured at fair value. However, management can make an irrevocable election to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income, provided the instrument is not held for trading. This amendment has no material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
|IFRS 10 – Consolidated Financial
IAS 28 – Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
|These amendments address an inconsistency between the requirements in IFRS 10 and those in IAS 28 in dealing with the sale or contribution of assets between an investor and its associate or joint venture. These amendments have no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
|IFRS 10 – Consolidated Financial Statements;
IFRS 12 – Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities;
IAS 28 – Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
|The amendments address issues that have arisen in the context of applying the consolidation exception for investment entities. These amendments have no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
|IFRS 11 – Joint Arrangements
|The additional guidance clarifies that the acquisition of an interest in a joint operation that meets the definition of a business under IFRS 3 is not a business combination as the acquiring party does not obtain control. This amendment has no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
|IFRS 15 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers
|The new standard on the recognition of
revenue from contracts with customers is based on a five step approach:
1) Identify the contract with the customer
2) Identify the separate performance obligations in the contract
3) Determine the transaction price
4) Allocate the transaction price to separate performance obligations
5) Recognize revenue when a performance obligation is satisfied.
These amendments will have an impact on the consolidated financial statements. According to the ongoing assessment, no material impact is expected.
|IFRS 16 - Leases
|Under IAS 17, lessees were required to make a distinction between a finance lease (on balance sheet) and an operating lease (off balance sheet). IFRS 16 now requires lessees to recognise a lease liability reflecting future lease payments and a ‘right-of-use asset’ for virtually all lease contracts. The IASB has included an optional exemption for certain short-term leases and leases of low-value assets; however, this exemption can only be applied by lessees. Under IFRS 16, a contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. These amendments will mainly have an impact on the consolidated balance sheet.
|IAS 16 – Property, Plant and
IAS 38 – Intangible Assets
|Clarifies which principle for the basis of depreciation and amortization can be used. The objective of the amendments is to ensure that preparers do not use revenue-based methods to calculate charges for the depreciation or amortization of items of property, plant and equipment or intangible assets. This amendment has no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
|IAS 27 – Separate Financial Statements
|The amendment restores the option to use the equity method to account for investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates in an entity's separate financial statements. This amendment has no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
|Annual improvements of IFRS and interpretations (IFRIC)
|The ordinary annual clarifications and minor amendments of various standards and interpretations have no material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Foreign currency translation
The functional currencies of the Group’s subsidiaries are generally the currencies of the local jurisdiction. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transaction, or at a rate that approximates to the actual rate at the date of the transaction. At the end of the accounting period, receivables and liabilities in foreign currency are valued at the rate of exchange prevailing at the consolidated balance sheet date, with resulting exchange rate differences charged to the income statement. Exchange rate differences related to loans that are part of the net investment in foreign entities are recorded in “other comprehensive income” and disclosed as cumulative translation adjustments. For the consolidation, assets and liabilities stated in functional currencies other than Swiss francs are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing at the consolidated balance sheet date. Income and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates (weighted sales) for the period. Translation gains or losses are recorded in “other comprehensive income” and disclosed as cumulative translation adjustments.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, balances with banks and short-term, highly liquid financial investments with maturities of three months or less at their acquisition date that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value. The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents approximates to their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
Inventories are stated at the lower of historical or manufacturing costs, or net realizable value. The manufacturing costs comprise all directly attributable costs of material and manufacture and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Historical cost is determined using the weighted average cost formula, while the manufacturing cost is determined using the standard cost formula. Net realizable value corresponds to the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the selling costs. Allowances are made for obsolete and slow-moving inventories.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are carried at historical or manufacturing costs less accumulated depreciation. Betterment that increases the useful lives of the assets, substantially improves the quality of the output, or enables a substantial reduction in operating costs is capitalized and depreciated over the remaining useful lives. Depreciation of property, plant and equipment is calculated using the straight-line method based on the following useful lives: buildings (15–50 years), production machinery and assembly lines (8–25 years), molds (4–6 years), equipment and furnishings (4–25 years) and vehicles (5–10 years). Properties are not regularly depreciated. Repair and maintenance related to investments in property, plant and equipment is charged to the income statement as incurred.
Borrowing costs of all material qualifying assets are capitalized during the construction phase in accordance with IAS 23. A qualified asset is an asset for which an extensive period (generally more than a year) is required to transform it to its planned usable condition. If funds are specifically borrowed, the costs that can be capitalized are the actual costs incurred less any investment income earned on the temporary investment of these borrowings. If the borrowed funds are part of a general pool, the amount that can be capitalized must be determined by applying a capitalization rate to the expenses related to this asset.
If there is any indication for impairment, the actual carrying amount of the asset is compared to its recoverable amount. If the carrying amount is higher than its estimated recoverable amount, the asset is reduced accordingly and charged to the income statement.
Intangible assets and goodwill
The Group records goodwill as the difference between the purchase price and the net assets of the company acquired, both measured at fair value. If the value of net assets is higher than the purchase price, this gain is credited immediately to the income statement.
Goodwill and intangibles such as patents, trademarks and software acquired from third parties are initially stated and subsequently measured at cost. Goodwill and intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are not regularly amortized but tested for impairment on an annual basis. Since the capitalized trademarks are an inherent element of the business model of the Geberit Group and are therefore used over an indefinite time period, they are assigned an indefinite useful life. Impairments are recorded immediately as expenses in the consolidated income statements, and in the case of goodwill, not reversed in subsequent periods. The amortization of intangible assets with a definite useful life is calculated using the straight-line method based on the following useful lives: patents and technology (4–10 years), trademarks (5 years), software (4–6 years) and capitalized development costs (6 years).
Valuation of intangible assets and goodwill
Intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and goodwill are tested for impairment at each reporting date, at least. In this process, the actual carrying amount of the asset is compared with the recoverable amount. If the carrying amount is higher than its estimated recoverable amount, the asset is reduced correspondingly. The Group records the difference between recoverable amount and carrying amount as expense. The valuation is based on single assets or, if such valuation is not possible, on the level of the group of assets for which separately identifiable cashflows exist.
For the impairment tests of intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and goodwill, the Group applies the most recent business plans (period of four years) and the assumptions therein concerning development of prices, markets and the Group’s market shares. To discount future cashflows, the Group applies market or country-specific discount rates. Management considers the discount rates, the growth rates and the development of the operating margins to be the crucial parameters for the calculation of the recoverable amount. More detailed information is disclosed in Note 11.
The Group recognizes provisions when it has a present legal or constructive obligation to transfer economic benefits as a result of past events, and when a reasonable estimate of the size of the obligation can be made. The Group warrants its products against defects and accrues provisions for such warranties at the time of sale based on estimated claims. Actual warranty costs are charged against the accrued provisions when incurred.
Net sales are recognized when the risks and rewards are transferred, which normally happens when the products are shipped, i.e. when they are handed over to the carrier at the ramp of a Geberit logistics centre. Net sales include the invoiced amounts after deduction of the rebates shown on the customer's invoice. Customer bonuses and cash discounts granted subsequently are deducted as well.
Customer bonuses are sales deductions linked to the achievement of predefined sales targets. Cash discounts are sales deductions recognized on receipt of timely payments.
All costs associated with advertising and promoting products are recorded as expenses in the financial period during which they are incurred.
The consolidated financial statements include current income taxes based on the taxable earnings of the Group companies and are calculated according to national tax rules. Deferred taxes are recorded on temporary differences between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount using the “liability method”. Deferred taxes are calculated either using the current tax rate or the tax rate expected to be applicable in the period in which these differences will reverse. If the realization of future tax savings related to tax loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets is no longer probable, then the deferred tax assets are reduced accordingly.
A liability for deferred taxes is recognized only for non-refundable taxes at source and other earning distribution-related taxes for subsidiaries for which available earnings are intended to be remitted and of which the parent company controls the dividend policy (see Note 18).
Property, plant and equipment that is acquired on a lease and deemed to be owned in respect of its risks and rewards is classified under finance leasing. Leased property, plant and equipment is capitalized and depreciated over its estimated economic useful life. The corresponding lease obligations are recognized as liabilities. Payments under operating leases are reported as operating expenses on a straight-line basis and charged directly to the income statement accordingly.
Research and development expenditures
The majority of the expenses are incurred in relation to basic research, product and product range management, customer software development and R&D support/overheads, and these are charged directly to the income statement. The residual expenses relate to development costs for new products. If these concern major development projects, they are reviewed at each balance sheet date in order to verify if the capitalization criteria of IAS 38.57 are fulfilled. In the case that all criteria are fulfilled, the expenses are capitalized and amortized over a period of six years (see Note 27).
Retirement benefit plans
The Group manages different employee pension funds structured as both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. These pension funds are governed by the regulations of the countries in which the Group operates.
For defined benefit plans, the present value of the defined benefit obligation is calculated periodically by independent pension actuaries using the projected unit credit method on the basis of the service years and the expected salary and pension trends. Actuarial gains and losses are immediately recognized in other comprehensive income as “Remeasurements pension plans”. This item also includes the return on plan assets/reimbursement rights (excluding the interest based on the discount rate) and any effects of an asset ceiling adjustment. For defined benefit plans with an independent pension fund, the funded status of the pension fund is included in the consolidated balance sheet. Any surplus is capitalized in compliance with IAS 19.64 and IFRIC 14. The annual net periodic pension costs calculated for defined benefit plans are recognized in the income statement in the period in which they occur.
For defined contribution plans, the annual costs are calculated as a percentage of the pensionable salaries and are also charged to the income statement. Except for the contributions, the Group does not have any other payment obligations.
Rebates granted to employees when buying Geberit shares under share purchase plans are charged to the income statement in the year the programs are offered.
The fair value of the options allotted as part of the management long term incentive and the management share purchase plan is determined at the grant date and charged on a straight-line basis to personnel expenses over the vesting period. The values are determined using the binomial model.
Earnings per share
The number of ordinary shares for the calculation of the earnings per share is determined on the basis of the weighted average of the issued ordinary shares less the weighted average number of the treasury shares. For the calculation of diluted earnings per share, an adjusted number of shares is calculated as the sum of the total of the ordinary shares used to calculate the earnings per share and the potentially dilutive shares from option programs. The dilution from option programs is determined on the basis of the number of ordinary shares that could have been bought for the amount of the accumulated difference between the market price and exercise price of the options. The relevant market price used is the average Geberit share price for the financial year.
Earnings per share and diluted earnings per share are defined as the ratio of the attributable net income to the relevant number of ordinary shares.
Trade accounts receivable and other current assets are carried at amortized cost less allowances for credit losses. Trade accounts payable and other payables are carried at amortized cost. The carrying amount of such items virtually corresponds to their fair value.
Debt is initially recorded at fair value, net of transaction costs, and measured at amortized cost according to the effective interest rate method. The Group classifies debt as non-current when, at the balance sheet date, it has the unconditional right to defer settlement for at least 12 months after the balance sheet date.
Derivatives are initially recorded at fair value and subsequently adjusted for fair value changes. The recognition of derivatives in the Group’s balance sheet is based on internal valuations or on the valuation of the respective financial institution (see Note 15).
Geberit applies hedge accounting in accordance with IAS 39 to hedge balance sheet items and future cashflows, thus reducing income statement volatility. Changes in the value of instruments designated as fair value hedges are recorded together with the change in fair value of the underlying item directly in the income statements, net. The effective portion of instruments designated as cashflow hedges is recognized in “other comprehensive income”. The ineffective portion of such instruments is recorded in financial result, net. Changes in value resulting from cashflow hedges recognized in equity through the consolidated statements of comprehensive income are recorded in the income statement in the period in which the cashflow from the hedged transaction is recognized in the income statement.